Congress last week approved $13.6 billion in emergency spending related to Ukraine’s fight against the Russian invasion. The money includes guns, military supplies and one of the largest inflows of US foreign aid in the past decade. But also the deployment of American troops to Europe and funds for domestic authorities to enforce sanctions. Here’s a breakdown of where the money will go.
1. Traditional foreign aid, $6.9 billion
The bill will provide $6.9 billion through traditional foreign aid channels. This includes funds to strengthen Ukraine’s security and economy, as well as to provide food, health care and urgent assistance to both resident and refugee Ukrainians. This also includes financial support for gun purchases.
That’s more than the amount Ukraine has received in any year since 1994, when the US Agency for International Development began tracking such numbers. The $6.9 billion could include some funds that would not be counted in the agency’s data, which is calculated differently. Nonetheless, it is ten times the amount received by Ukraine in fiscal year 2020, the period of the last published data.
In fiscal 2020, Ukraine received 6% of all U.S. foreign aid tracked in agency data, making it the 17th largest recipient. It received nearly 60 times as much as its neighbor Belarus, but only a sixth of the money going to Afghanistan, the top recipient of US aid that year.
This portion of the newly authorized package will cover a variety of programs including:
— $2.65 billion to provide food aid and healthcare to war-affected Ukrainians and neighboring countries.
— $1.4 billion for humanitarian assistance and resettlement of Ukrainian refugees. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, around 3.2 million people have fled Ukraine since the invasion.
— $1.12 billion to support the Ukrainian government, provide economic assistance and support neighboring countries through the Aid to Europe, Eurasia and Central Asia program.
— $650 million for a funding program to provide additional military support to Ukraine and other war-affected countries. The program essentially provides loans and grants for the purchase of US weapons, equipment, and training.
— $647 million for the Economic Support Fund, which provides direct financial support and other economic assistance to Ukraine and other invasion-hit countries.
— $125 million for diplomatic programs to maintain US civic services in the region; invest in cybersecurity; improve the State Department’s ability to identify the assets of Russian and other oligarchs; and coordinate with Treasury to seize or freeze those assets.
— $120 million to fight disinformation and Russian propaganda and support independent media and activists.
— $100 million for Food for Peace grants to support donations of food supplies to Ukraine and Ukrainian refugees.
— $30 million for further integration of the Ukrainian power grid with the European one. In late February, Ukraine launched a 72-hour test to decouple its power grid from those of Belarus and Russia. During the trial, Russia invaded. Ukraine’s power grid was operating in isolation until Wednesday, when the European Energy Commission announced that technical experts had successfully connected it to the European grid.
— $30 million to fight international drug and human trafficking in Ukraine.
— $25 million for operations at USAID, the agency that directs US humanitarian aid in Ukraine.
2. Military supplies, $3.5 billion
Another $3.5 billion will be used to replace military supplies the Biden administration sent to Ukraine earlier this year and to ship more supplies.
In times of “unforeseen emergencies,” the President can authorize the transfer of US-owned weapons, ammunition and defense equipment without congressional approval.
The $3.5 billion includes $550 million to replace shipments President Joe Biden has authorized to ship in February and the first week of March. These so-called “drawdown” packages included “javelins and other anti-tank systems, small arms, various calibers of ammunition, and other essential non-lethal equipment,” according to a report released this week by the Congressional Research Service.
The bill also allows Biden to ship more supplies. On Wednesday, shortly after Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy delivered a virtual speech to Congress, Biden announced a third $800 million package to be replaced with funds authorized in this bill.
3. US operations and intelligence programs, $3 billion
The US also provided $3 billion to fund the deployment of its own military units to allied countries in Europe. The funds will be used to transport personnel and equipment, pay for deployed troops, and provide medical and intelligence support in the region.
4. Enforcement of Sanctions and Other Assistance, $175.5 million
Eventually, Congress committed more than $175.5 million to enforce sanctions and export control measures imposed by the US to isolate the Russian economy from the international financial system.
The newly approved package will fund the following programs:
– $43.6 million to the FBI to investigate cyber threats, conduct counterintelligence, monitor cryptocurrency activity and set up an additional team focused on violating Russian sanctions.
— $25 million for the Treasury to impose sanctions and analyze Russia’s economic vulnerabilities.
— $25 million to fight disinformation and support independent journalism.
— $22.1 million for analysis of Russia’s economic and trade vulnerabilities and the potential impact of potential retaliation on the US supply chain. Some of the money will also be used to improve US technological infrastructure and intelligence-sharing platforms with allies.
— $19 million for the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network.
— $17 million for departmental offices in support of political offices involved in coordinated responses for Ukrainian task forces.
— $9.7 million for the Justice Department’s Ukraine Task Force to Combat Cybercrime Threats and Ransomware Cases.
— $4 million for overseeing USAID emergency funds and operations.
— $4 million for overseeing State Department emergency funds and operations.
— $5 million for US attorneys to prosecute sanctions violators and develop data analytics to address complex sanctions cases.
— $1.1 million for the National Security Division to support the work of the Justice Department’s task force on export controls, sanctions and cyber cases related to the conflict.
Sources: Department of State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts; Congressional Research Service, US Security Assistance to Ukraine; ForeignAssistance.gov; White House request to Congress; Law on Supplementary Funds of Ukraine, 2022; House summary of the bill